Wednesday, November 30, 2011

Mathematics - Vedas and Arya Bhatt Part-1

At every field, we were taught that Arya Bhatt was the man who invented Zero (0), and he is the father of modern Mathematics. The basis of such claim is the Book written by him in which he has described the concept of Trigonometry, formulas for calculation of distance of earth from sun, size of earth etc.

But those historians blind their eyes on other evidences that prove that the modern form of Mathematics was prevalent much earlier then Arya Bhatt, rather the Vedas contain a number of Verses, that shows the use of Zero and the mathematics was very well known to them.

Here  I will quote the verses from the  Rig Veda, that contain use of number system. Starting from the fifth sukta of Rig Veda, Indradev is said to be Satakarta, meaning performer of Hundred functions. Even if we skip this one, we will see a numerous use of numbers in Vedas, that proves, mathematics was used with ease during that period.

1:7:9
य एकस्चर्षणीनां वसूनामिरज्यति | इन्द्रः पञ्च क्षितीनाम ||
Ya ekascharssaninam vasunamirajyati | Indrah PANCHA Kshyitinam ||

Indradev is the master of all properties of all FIVE kinds of people.

Here we first encountered with any number in Vedas. Here the number used is Five (5). We are talking about an age when even the Roman Numbers were not in existence. 

1:10:11
आ तु न इन्द्र कौशिक मन्दसानः सुतं पिब | नब्यमायुः प्र सु तिर कृधि सहस्रसमृषम ||
A tu na Indra kaushik mandasanah sutam piba | Navyamayuh pra su tira kridhi SAHASHRAsamrissam ||

Oh Son of Kaushik, Indradev, please come to us soon, and drink this soma ras. Give us long life and ability to perform good. Give this rishi a THOUSAND types of wealth.

Although some can say, here thousand may mean uncountable. But still the argument holds good that the use of thousands was known during those period.

1:13:9
इळा सरस्वती महि तिस्त्रो देवीर्मयोभुवः | बर्हिः सिदन्त्वस्त्रिधः ||
Illha Saraswati Mahi Tistro devirmayobhuvah | Barhih sidantvastridhah ||

Illa, Saraswati and Mahi (earth), these THREE are most beneficial to us, and they will not decay. May these THREE be seated on the Kusha.

We notice here that the word "Three" used here has the same meaning even today. Hence it is the same number system that we are using even today.

1:20:7
ते  नो रत्नानि धत्तन त्रीरा साप्तानि सुन्वते | एकमेकं सुशस्तिभिः ||
Te no ratnani dhattan TRIRA SAPTANI sunvate | Ekamekam sushastibhih ||

Oh Ribhugan (Sun rays), who get pleased with good songs, please give THREE kinds of gems of SEVEN numbers to each of the person performing the yagnya. 

There are three parts of yagnya, viz. Haviryagnya, Pakayagnya and Somayagnya. Each are of seven types. In total these are twenty one. This Richa gives a hint that the Vedas contain information regarding multiplication too, which we will see further.

1:25:8
वेद मासो धृतव्रतो द्वदश प्रजावतः | वेद ये उपजायते ||
Veda maso dhritavrito DVADASHA prajavatah | Veda ye upajayate ||

He (Varundev), knows the TWELVE months that are useful to us, he knows about the Leap month too.

In the Lunar Calender, the Leap month exists. Even today, the Hindu Calenders have this Leap month, which is also known as Thirteenth Month. The Calender prepared by Arya Bhatt too considers this Lunar Leap month. Hence this theory of computing the dates was not invented by Arya Bhatt, rather he wrote different treaties based on this.      
 
1:34:11
आ  नासत्या त्रिभिरेकादशौरिह देवेभिर्यातं मधुपेयमश्विना |
प्रयुस्तारिष्टं नी रपांसि मृक्षतं सेधतं द्वेषो भयतं सचाभुवा ||
Aa nasatya TRIBHIREKADASHOURIHA devebhiryaatam madhupeyamasvina |
Prayustaarisstam ni rapaamsi mrikshyatam sedhatam dvesso bhayatam sachaabhuvaa ||

Oh Aswinikumars, Please come to our yagnya to drink honey with THIRTY THREE Devatas. Please give us long life, destroy our sins, destroy the enemity for us,  be helpfull to us.

Here we saw, there are thirty three devatas. Further we will see who are they. This Richa proves the use of ZERO based Number System.

1:35:8
 अष्टौ व्यख्यत्ककुभः पर्थिव्यस्त्रि धन्व योजना सप्त सिन्धून् |
हिरन्याक्षायः सविता देव आगाद्यधद्रत्ना दाषुसे वार्याणि ||
ASTAU vyakhyatkakubhah paarthivyastri dhanva yojanaa SAPTA sindhun |
Hiranyaakshyayah savita deva aagaadyadhadratna daassuse varyaani ||   

The Sun with Golden rays, comes here with the wealth for the EIGHT Directions of the earth (Four main and four sub directions), SEVEN Oceans, and THREE worlds.

This richa again proves that the number system used in the Vedas are the same as used by Arya Bhatt to prepare his treaties. 

1:53:9
त्वमेतञ्जनराज्ञो द्विर्दशाबन्धुना सुश्रवसोपजग्मुषः |
षष्टिं सहस्रा नवतिं नव श्रुतो नि चक्रेण रथ्या दुष्पदावृणक् ||
Tvametanjanaraagnyo DVIRDASHA bandhuna sushravasopajagmussah |
SSASSTIM SAHASRA NAVANTIM NAVA shruto ni chakrena rathyaa dusspadaavrinak ||

Oh Indradev, who is praised by all, you defeated the TWENTY kings and their SIXTY THOUSAND, NINETY NINE soldiers with your war skills, who stood before "Sushra" who had no friends.

The number used here is 60,099. Describing such a number without knowledge of the mathematics is impossible. This is the greatest prove that the Modern Number System was well known.

1:89:9
 शतमिन्नु शरदो अन्ति देवा यत्रा नश्चका जरसं तनूनाम्  |
पुत्रासो यत्र पितरो भवन्ति मा नो मध्या रीरिषतायुर्गन्तोः  
 SHATAminny sharado anti deva yatra naschakaa jarasam tanunam |
Putraso yatra pitaro bhavanti maa no madhyaa reerissatayurganto ||

Oh Devatas, HUNDRED years is the limit of our age, the oldage of our body is given by you too. By this time, our children too get children, may our life not be shortened by this.

The word HUNDRED used in this richa has the same meaning as the word HUNDRED today. Such a number can not be explained without knowledge of ZERO.

1:134:4
यासां तिस्त्रोः पन्चासतो ऽभीव्लङ्गैरपावपः | तत्सु ते मनायति तकत्सु ते मनायति ||
Yasam TISTROH PANCHASATO o bhivlangeirapaavapah | Tatsu te manaayati takatsu te manaayati ||

Oh Indradev, you destroyed three multiplied by fifty soldiers of the enemies by your war skill. This may not be an important event for you, but it is worth to be prasied. 

Earlier we saw, a a four digit number has been said properly. In this Richa we saw, to represent 150, the words used are "3 multiplied by 50". This proves that Multiplication was a very common activity at that time.

1:155:6
चतुर्भिः साकं नवतिं च नमभिस्चक्रं न वृत्तं व्यतिरवीविपत |
बृहच्छरीरे विमिमान ऋक्वभिर्युवाकुमारः प्रत्येत्याहवम् ||
Chaturbhih sakam navatim cha namabhischakram na vritam vyatiraveevipat |
Brihachchharire vimiman rikvabhiryuvakumarah pratyetyaahavam ||

Vishnu who is like the sun, holds the wheel with NINETY FOUR limbs of time. He is large, ever young, void of deterioration, who inspires the progress of time. He comes to our yagnya when we sing songs for him.

In this Richa, it is mentioned that there were 94 limbs of calender. They are - One year, Two hemispheres (Northern and Southern), Five seasons, twelve months, Twenty four fortnights, 30 days/nights, Eight Yam, Twelve Rashis. This richa proves, the Rishis not only aware about the number system, but also the Panchang. 

Continued...
   
   

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